Donald Trump, Silvio Berlusconi, Marine Le Pen, Hugo Chávez – populists are on the rise across the globe. But what exactly is populism? Should everyone who criticises Wall Street or Washington be called a populist? What precisely is the difference between right-wing and left-wing populism? Does populism bring government closer to the people or is it a threat to democracy? Who are ‘the people’ anyway and who can speak in their name? These questions have never been more pressing. In this provocative book, Jan-Werner Müller argues that at populism’s core is a rejection of pluralism.