This is a succinct, expert guide to how we got to Brexit. After all the debates, manoeuvrings, recriminations, and exaltations, Brexit is upon us. But, as Kevin O’Rourke writes, Brexit did not emerge out of nowhere: it is the culmination of events that have been under way for decades and have historical roots stretching back well beyond that. Brexit has a history. O’Rourke, one of the leading economic historians of his generation, explains not only how British attitudes to Europe have evolved, but also how the EU’s history explains why it operates as it does today – and how that history has shaped the ways in which it has responded to Brexit.